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The Iraqi people or Mesopotamian people are natives or inhabitants of the country of Iraq, known since antiquity as Mesopotamia (Arabic: بلاد الرافدين, Aramaic: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ), with a large diaspora throughout the Arab World, Europe, the Americas, and Australasia. From late Babylonian and Assyrian times until the early Islamic era, the Iraqi people spoke Aramaic but also witnessed a minority Arab presence, like Bani Assad, Taghlib, Banu Tamim and Lakhmid tribes among others. Arabic had been a minority language in Iraq for some eight hundred years before Islam, it was spoken in Hatra in the 1st and 2nd centuries, and by Iraqi Christians in Al-Hirah in the 3rd century, and from the 7th century following the Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia it became the common language of Iraqi Muslims, due to Arabic being the language of the Qur'an and the Caliphate This change was facilitated by the fact that Arabic being a Semitic language, shared a close resemblance to Iraq's traditional languages of Akkadian and Aramaic. Some of Iraq's Christians and Mandaeans retained dialects of Aramaic, since it remained the liturgical language of their faiths. Kurdish-speaking Iraqis are indigenous to the mountainous Zagros region of northeast Iraq to the east of the upper Tigris. The Kurds and Arabs of Mesopotamia have interacted and intermarried for well over a millennium. Modern genetic studies indicate that Iraqi Arabs and Kurds are very closely related. Arabic and Kurdish are Iraq's national languages.

Main articles: Culture of Iraq and History of Iraq The Iraqi people developed a number of significant civilizations in Iraq, or Mesopotamia, widely regarded as the cradle of civilization. The region was the centre of five great empires or civilizations (or seven, if counting the Neo-Babylonian Empire and Neo-Assyrian Empire as separate empires), known as ancient Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, the Babylonian Empire (who brought a significant number of Jews into the land between the two rivers who would eventually form the Jewish population of Iraq), the Assyrian Empire, and the medieval Islamic Abbasid Caliphate. The Ancient Iraqi civilization of Sumer is the oldest known civilization in the world, and thus Iraq is known as the cradle of civilization. Iraq remained an important centre of civilization for millennia, up until the Abbasid Caliphate (of which Baghdad was the capital), which was the most advanced empire of the medieval world (see Islamic Golden Age). Further information on Iraq's civilizations, which has influenced and was influenced by many other great civilizations around the world, can be found under the following articles and the sub-links found within the respective pages: Ancient Iraq Sumer Akkadian Empire Babylonia Chaldea Neo-Babylonian Empire Assyria Neo-Assyrian Empire Persian Empire Achaemenid Assyria Adiabene Asuristan Araba Lakhmids Islamic Golden Age Muslim conquest of Iraq Abbasid Caliphate Ottoman Iraq Mamluk rule in Iraq British Mandate of Mesopotamia Kingdom of Iraq

Languages The two main regional dialects of Arabic spoken by the Iraqi people are Mesopotamian Arabic (spoken by approximately 18.1 million Iraqis (i.e. the majority) and thus commonly known as "Iraqi Arabic") and North Mesopotamian Arabic (spoken by approximately 7.8 million Iraqis in Iraq's north around the city of Mosul and thus commonly known as "Maslawi") [2] In addition to Arabic, some Christian Iraqis (Chaldeans, Assyrians) speak Neo-Aramaic dialects. The Mandaic language is a dialect of Eastern Aramaic. The liturgical manuscripts of the Mandaean Iraqis are in this language. The vast majority of Kurdish and Aramaic–speaking Iraqis also speak Iraqi Arabic.

Religion Iraq has many devout followers of its religions. In 1968 the Iraqi constitution established Islam as the official religion of the state as the majority of Iraqis are Muslim (both Sunni and Shia). In addition to Islam, many Iraqi people are Christians belonging to various Christian denominations, some of which are the Chaldean Catholic Church with about 1,500,000 members (Chaldean Christians), the Syriac Orthodox Church with an estimated 900,000, and the Assyrian Church of the East with an estimated 800,000 members.[3] [4]. Other religious groups include Mandaeans, Shabaks, Yezidis and followers of other minority religions. Furthermore Jews were also present in Iraq but their population has dwindled following the creation of Israel.[35][36]

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